Approaches to Promote Gender Parity in Parliamentary Representation in Germany and France


  • Thomas Schmitz Gadjah Mada University



Gender Parity in Parliamentary Representation in Germany and France, gender equality, freedom of political parties, equal opportunities of political parties, free and equal elections, democracy, mandatory gender quota for electoral lists, public funding of political parties, self-commitment of political parties to gender parity


Men and women are equal, but parliaments are dominated by men. In Europe, there has been a debate since the 1990s how to change this and promote gender parity in parliamentary representation. This contribution presents the approaches taken and discussed in Germany and France, and the considerable constitutional obstacles on the way to achieving this goal.

Author Biography

Thomas Schmitz, Gadjah Mada University

At the time of submission of the current article for publication, DAAD lecturer in law at Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; DAAD lecturer at the University of Latvia 2006–2010; Ausserplanmäßiger Professor (adjunct professor) at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany. The following text is an updated version of a contribution to the International Conference “Enhancing Women’s Roles in Social and Political Life: New Developments and Trends”, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Aceh, 04.08.2021.


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How to Cite

Schmitz, T. (2023). Approaches to Promote Gender Parity in Parliamentary Representation in Germany and France. Journal of the University of Latvia. Law, 16, 71–84.