“Not Permanent, Nor Static”: Perspectives on “Humanisation” of International Immunities in International Law
Keywords:humanisation of international law, exceptions to international immunities, jus cogens, controlimiti
“Humanisation” has had a variable impact on international law. Nevertheless, it has failed to significantly affect the state-centric paradigm underpinning state and state officials’ jurisdictional immunities. The present contribution is intended to provide some remarks on the challenges and perspectives on the humanisation of international immunities in international law.
Barkholdt, J., Kulaga, J. Analytical Presentation of the Comments and Observations by States on Draft Article 7. KFG Working Paper Series, Vol. 4, 2018.
Cannizzaro, E. Jurisdictional Immunities and Judicial Protection: The Decision of the Italian Constitutional Court No. 238 of 2014. Rivista di diritto internazionale, Vol. 98, 2015.
Cataldi, G. A Historic Decision of the Italian Constitutional Court on the Balance between the Italian Legal Order’s Fundamental Values and Customary International Law. Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 24, 2015.
Conforti, B. The Judgment of the International Court of Justice on the Immunity of Foreign States: A Missed Opportunity. Italian Yearbook of International of International Law, Vol. 21, 2011.
De Sena, P., De Vittor, F. State Immunity and Human Rights: The Italian Supreme Court Decision on the Ferrini Case. European Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, 2005.
Fontanelli, F. Sketches for a Reparation Scheme: How Could a German-Italian Fund for the IMIs Work? In: Remedies against Immunity? Reconciling International and Domestic Law after the Italian Constitutional Court Sentenza 238/2014, Volpe, V., et al. (eds). E-book: Springer, 2021.
Fox, H., Webb, Ph. Law of State Immunity. Oxford: OUP, 3rd ed., 2013.
Gianelli, A. Crimini internazionali ed immunità degli Stati alla giurisdizione nella sentenza Ferrini. Rivista di diritto internazionale, Vol. 87, 2004.
Hess, B. The International Law Commission’s Draft Convention on the Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property. European Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, 1993.
Higgins, R. Equality of States and Immunity from Suit: A Complex Relationship. The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 43, 2012.
Iovane, M. The Ferrini Judgment of the Italian Supreme Court: Opening Up Domestic Courts to Claim of Reparation for Victims of Serious Violations of Fundamental Rights. Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 14, 2004.
Meron, Th. The Humanization of International Law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006.
Orakhelashvili, A. Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy; Greece intervening). American Journal of International Law, Vol. 106, 2012.
Pavoni, R. Human Rights and the Immunities of Foreign States and International Organizations. In: Hierarchy in International Law: The Place of Human Rights, De Wet, E., Vidmar, J. (eds). Oxford: OUP, 2012.
Pellet, A. “Human Rightism” and International Law. Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 10, 2000.
Peters, A., Volpe, V. Reconciling State Immunity with Remedies for War Victims in a Legal Pluriverse. In: Remedies against Immunity? Reconciling International and Domestic Law after the Italian Constitutional Court Sentenza 238/2014, Volpe, V., et al. (eds). E-book: Springer, 2021.
Pisillo Mazzeschi, R. Il rapporto tra norme di ius cogens e la regola sull’immunità degli Stati: alcune osservazioni critiche sulla sentenza della Corte internazionale di giustizia del 3 febbraio 2012. Diritti umani e diritto internazionale, Vol. 6, 2012.
Roberts, A. Comparative International Law? The Role of National Courts in Creating and Enforcing International Law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 60, 2011;
Sciso, E. Italian Judges’ Point of View on Foreign State’s Immunity. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 44, 2011.
Sheeran, S. The Relationship of International Human Rights and General International Law: Hermeneutic Constraint, or Pushing the Boundaries? In: Routledge Handbook of International Human Rights, Sheeran, S., Rodely, N. (eds). London: Routledge, 2013.
Tanzi, A. M. Un difficile dialogo tra Corte internazionale di giustizia e Corte costituzionale. La Comunità internazionale, Vol. 70, 2015.
Tzevelekos, V. P. Revisiting the Humanisation of International Law: Limits and Potentials. Obligations Erga Omnes, Hierarchy of Rules and the Principle of Due Diligence as the Basis for Further Humanisation. Erasmus Law Review, Vol. 6, 2013.
Van Alebeek, R., Pavoni, R. Immunities of States and their Officials. In: International Law in Domestic Courts: A Casebook, Nollkaemper, A., et al. (eds). Oxford: OUP, 2018.
Webb, Ph. Human Rights and the Immunities of State Officials. In: Hierarchy in International Law: The Place of Human Rights, De Wet, E., Vidmar, J. (eds). Oxford: OUP, 2012.
Wuerth, I. International Law in Domestic Courts and the Jurisdictional Immunities of the State Case. Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, 2012.
Yang, X. State Immunity in International Law. Cambridge: CUP, 2012.
Law of 14 January 2013, No. 5.
Decree-Law of 30 April 2022, No. 36.
Judgment of the House of Lords of 24 March 1999 in Case Regina v. Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrate, Ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (No. 3).
Judgment of 21 November 2001 of the ECtHR in Case Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom (application No. 35763/97).
Judgment of 14 February 2002 of the ICJ in Case Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium).
Judgment of the Italian Court of Cassation of 11 March 2004 in Case No. 5044.
Judgment of the House of Lords of 14 June 2006 in Case Jones and Others v. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Judgment of the ICJ of 4 June 2008 in Case Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (Djibouti v. France).
Judgment of 3 February 2012 of the ICJ in Case Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening).
Judgment of 14 January 2014 of the ECtHR in Case Jones and Others v. United Kingdom (applications No. 34356/06 and 40528/06).
Judgment of the Italian Constitutional Court of 22 October 2014 in Case No. 234.
Judgment of the Seoul Central District Court of 8 January 2021 in Case No. 2016 Ga-Hap 505092.
Fifth report on immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction, by Concepción Escobar Hernández, Special Rapporteur. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Vol. II, Part Two, 2016.
Third report on peremptory norms of general international law (jus cogens) by Dire Tladi, Special Rapporteur. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Vol. II, Part Two, 2018.
Draft Conclusions on Identification of Customary International Law, with Commentaries. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Vol. II, Part Two, 2018.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.