Profiles of cognitive ability domains in children with and without ADHD symptoms
Keywords:ADHD, cognitive ability domains, executive functions, cognitive deficit, typically developed children
Studies to date have most often compared the mean scores of an ADHD and control group to see if there are differences between them. Various cluster or linear data processing methods have also been used in studies to group children into certain subgroups according to various characteristics, but so far we have not found any study that has succeeded in dividing both ADHD and control group children into such subgroups. Results vary from study to study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare the heterogeneity of different cognitive ability domains in children with and without ADHD symptoms with qualitative data analysis methods - creating unique profiles of cognitive ability domains for each child. In this study participated 76 children aged 8–13 and were divided into two groups: ADHD group – 46 children (M = 10.08; SD = 1.67), control group – 30 children (M = 9.41; SD = 1.60). Four methods were used to calculate cognitive ability domain scores: Stroop’s Word and Color Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Digit Span Test, and Continuous Performance Test. The analysis of the profiles revealed a wide heterogeneity in both groups. Also, it was observed in these profiles that children with ADHD experience had more pronounced difficulties in cognitive ability domains compared to the control group. At the same time, it can be concluded that not all children with ADHD experience them. Comparing profiles of children from either of these two groups it can be concluded that some of the children with ADHD symptoms have profiles similar to typically developing children.
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