Daily reports on work engagement, productivity, cognitive ability, and psychological detachment from work for adults with or without physical activity after work
Keywords:work engagement, productivity, psychological detachment from work, cognitive ability, physical activity
The long-term benefits of physical activity (PA) on both physical and psychological well-being are well proven (see meta-analysis by Reed & Ones, 2006). The association between PA and important organizational variables as employees’ psychological detachment from work during leisure time, next day’s work engagement, productivity, and cognitive ability, however, has not been sufficiently examined in the context of organizations. The aim of this study was to compare adult groups that engaged in PA after work to those who did not in order to study daily dynamics of these variables. In this study, 42 participants, aged 21 to 52, 33 women and nine men - took part over the duration of 5 days. Between groups, there were no significant differences found in any of the organizational variables, however, a significant day effect of the measurement was observed in daily (state) work engagement (SWE) and its subscale vigor, as well as in productivity and cognitive ability. The effect of the interaction between the measurement day and the group was significant for psychological detachment measure.
Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations [Editorial]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(2), 147–154. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.515
Berga, L. (2016). Ikdienas iesaiste darbā, ārpusdarba aktivitātes un psiholoģiskā distancēšanās no darba. Maģistra darbs. Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte. Unpublished Manuscript.
Biddle, S. J., Fox, K. R., & Boutcher, S. H. (Eds.). (2000). Physical activity and psychological well-being in Lindwall, Gerber, Jonsdottir, Borjesson, Ahlborg (2013). The Relationships of Change in Physical Activity With Change in Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Swedish Healthcare Workers. Health psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034402
Biddle, S. J. H., Mutrie, N., Gorely, T., & Faulkner, G. (2021). Psychology of Physical Activity: Determinants, Well-being and Interventions. (4th ed.) Taylor and Francis Inc. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003127420
Bosco, F., Allen, D. G., & Singh, K. (2015). Executive attention: An alternative perspective on general mental ability, performance, and subgroup differences. Personnel Psychology, 68, 859–898
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Hetland, J. (2012). The measurement of state work engagement: A multilevel factor analytic study. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 305–312. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000111
Calderwood, C., ten Brummelhuis, L.L., Patel, A.S., Watkins, T., Gabriel, A.S., & Rosen, C.C. (2020). Employee physical activity: A multidisciplinary integrative review. Journal of Management, 47, 144–170.
Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public health reports (Washington, D.C.: 1974), 100(2), 126–131.
Calderwood, Charles & Gabriel, Allison & Rosen, Christopher & Simon, Lauren & Koopman, Joel. (2015). 100 years running: The need to understand why employee physical activity benefits organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 37. 10.1002/job.2064.
Cho, S., & Park, Y. (2018). How to benefit from weekend physical activities: Moderating roles of psychological recovery experiences and sleep. Stress and Health, 34(5), 639–648. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2831
Clear, J. (2018). Atomic habits: an easy & proven way to build good habits & break bad ones; tiny changes, remarkable results. New York: Avery, an imprint of Penguin Random House.
Cuttler, C., Connolly, C. P., LaFrance, E. M., & Lowry, T. M. (2018). Resist forgetting: Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on prospective and retrospective memory. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7(2), 205–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000112
Diamond A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual review of psychology, 64, 135–168.
Edwards, D. B., Franco-Watkins, M. A., McAbee, T. S. & Faura, L. with Wallace, C., Zugec, L. & Poteet, M. L. (2017). The Bridge: Connecting science and practice: The case for using working memory in practice. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (TIP), 55(1).
Engle, R. W., Kane, M. J., & Tuholski, S. W. (1999). Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence, and functions of the prefrontal cortex. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 102–134). Cambridge University Press.
Faulkner, G. E. J., & Taylor, A. H. (Eds.). (2005). Exercise, Health and Mental Health: Emerging relationships (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203415016
Feuerhahn, N., Sonnentag, S., & Woll, A. (2014). Exercise after work, psychological mediators, and affect: A Day-level study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 62–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.709965
Hambrick, D. Z., Oswald, F. L., Darowski, E. S., Rench, T. A., & Brou, R. (2010). Predictors of multitasking performance in a synthetic work paradigm. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(8), 1149–1167. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1624
Hogan, C. L., Mata, J., & Carstensen, L. L. (2013). Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 28(2), 587–594. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032634
Iida, M., Shrout, P. E., Laurenceau, J.-P., & Bolger, N. (2012). Using diary methods in psychological research. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol. 1. Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 277–305). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13619-016
Jakicic, J. M., Kraus, W. E., Powell, K. E., Campbell, W. W., Janz, K. F., Troiano, R. S., Sprow, K., Torres, A., Piercy, K. L. (2019). Association between bout duration of physical activity and health: Systematic review, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51(6), 1213–1219.
Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90001-2
Lewandowsky, S. (2011). Working memory capacity and categorization: individual differences and modeling. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, 37(3), 720–738. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022639
Lindwall, M., Gerber, M., Jonsdottir, I. H., Börjesson, M., & Ahlborg, G., Jr. (2014). The relationships of change in physical activity with change in depression, anxiety, and burnout: a longitudinal study of Swedish healthcare workers. Health psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 33(11), 1309–1318. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034402
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual review of psychology, 52, 397–422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (Eds.). (1999). Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control. Cambridge University Press.
Owen, N., Bauman, A., & Brown, W. (2009). Too much sitting: a novel and important predictor of chronic disease risk? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(2), 81–83. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.055269
Peeters, M. C. W., Montgomery, A. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005). Balancing Work and Home: How Job and Home Demands Are Related to Burnout. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 43–61. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.12.1.43
Reed, J. & Ones, D. (2006). The effect of acute aerobic exercise on positive activated affect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 477–514.
Richardson, J. T. E. (2007). Mental models of learning in distance education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(2), 253–270.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.
Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2003) UWES-Utrecht Work Engagement Scale: Test Manual. Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht.
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a brief questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701–716.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 3(1), 71–92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326
Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, Work Engagement, and Proactive Behavior: A New Look at the Interface Between Nonwork and Work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 518–528.
Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204–221. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.11
Sonnentag, S., Dormann, C., & Demerouti, E. (2010). Not all days are equal: The concept of state work engagement. In M. P. Leiter & A. B. Bakker (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 25–38). New York: Psychology Press.
Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2015). Recovery from job stress: The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(S1), S72–S103.
Sonnentag, S., Mojza, E. J., Binnewies, C., & Scholl, A. (2008). Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect. Work & Stress, 22(3), 257–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379440
Sternberg, R. J. (2016). Testing: For better and worse. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(4), 66–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721716681780
Sternberg, R. J. & Sternberg, K. (2012). Cognitive Psychology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage.
ten Brummelhuis, L. L. & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Staying engaged during the week: The effect of off-job activities on next day work engagement. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 445–455.
Terman, L. M. (1916). The measurement of intelligence: An explanation of and a complete guide for the use of the Stanford revision and extension of the Binet-Simon intelligence scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Thiese, M. S., Ronna, B., & Ott, U. (2016). P value interpretations and considerations. Journal of thoracic disease, 8(9), E928–E931. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2016.08.16
Vanags, E., Ekmanis, J. (2018). Affect arousal and valence recognition from EDA asymmetry and HRV measurements during computerised cognitive ability testing. The 4th international conference of the European Society for Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (ESCAN).
Vogel, R. M., Rodell, J. B., & Agolli, A. (2021). Daily engagement and productivity: The importance of the speed of engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology.
Wiese, C. W., Kuykendall, L., & Tay, L. (2018). Get active? A meta-analysis of leisure-time physical activity and subjective well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1374436
Zijlstra, F. R., Cropley, M., & Rydstedt, L. W. (2014). From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize ‘recovery from work’. Stress and health: journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 30(3), 244–252. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2604
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Organizational Psychology, 82, 183–200.