Ideology in the Development of Latvian Co-operatives from the 19th Century to 1934
Keywords:Latvia, co-operatives ideology, International Co-operative Alliance
In this paper I will examine the ideology or the basic ideas upon which the co-operative movement in Latvia developed from its beginnings to 1934. The notion of co-operatives in Latvia entered mainly via literary sources in the early 19th Century. In particular, the translation into Latvian of the works of such people as the social reformist Heinrich Zschokke, the social reformer Johann Friedrich Oberlin and others. The ideas of the German co-operators Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch and Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen also had a lasting impact on the development of Latvian co-operatives from the second half of the 19th Century. During the interwar period of Latvian independence, such Latvian writers as Vilis Siliņš and Klāvs Lorencs, who had gained their experience of co-operatives abroad, were influential in the development of Latvian co-operatives in the 1920s. In addition, many books and pamphlets on co-operation were translated into Latvian and published during this period. These included the writings of Charles Gide from France, Johann Friedrich Schär and D'Henry Faucherre from Switzerland, Albin Johansson and Anders Hedberg from Sweden and Emma Freundlich from Austria, as well as others. Many new co-operative ideas were brought back to Latvia after Latvian participation at meetings of the International Co-operative Alliance and similar organisations, as well as attendance by Latvian co-operators at the International Co-operative Summer School held by the International Co-operative Alliance. After the coup d’état in 1934, the co-operative movement became an instrument of the state and fulfilled the instructions from the state. In general terms, it can said that the intellectual impulses from Western Europe motivated and activated the formation and development the Latvian co-operative movement, especially in the interwar period to 1934.
Aizsilnieks, A. (1968). Latvijas saimniecības vēsture, 1914–1945. [An Economic History of Latvia. 1914–1945], Stockholm: Daugava.
Aschhoff, G. (1982). The Banking Principles of Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch and Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen. Engels W., Pohl H. (eds) German Yearbook on Business History 1982. German Yearbook on Business History 1982, vol 1982. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68792-1_2
Balodis, E. (1926). Kooperācija pamatskolām [Co-operatives for Primary Schools]. Rīga: Latvijas Kooperatīvu izdevniecības savienība
Balodis, E. (1928). Kooperācija Latvijā [Co-operatives in Latvia]. Rīga: Latvijas Kooperatīvu izdevniecības savienība.
Balodis, E. (1930). Modernās kooperācijas priekšteči Latvijā [Forerunners of Modern Co-operatives in Latvia]. Rīga: Latvijas Kooperatīvu izdevniecības savienība.
Balodis, E. (1937). Latviešu kreditkooperacija priekš pasaules kara [Latvian Credit Co-operatives prior to World War One]. Latviešu kooperatīvais kredits. Rakstu krājums. [Latvian Co-operative Credit. Collected Articles]. Rīga: Latvijas Tautas bankas izdevums, pp. 1–6.
Drolet, M., Frobert, L. (2021). Robert Owen and Continental Europe. History of European Ideas, 47 (2), pp. 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/01916599.2020.1798631
Hiden, J., Salmon, P. (1991). The Baltic Nations and Europe. London: Longman.
Kopdarbības gada grāmata (1938). [Co-operation Year Book] Jelgava: Kopdarbības reviziju un organizācijas birojs.
Likumu un Ministru kabineta noteikumu krājums (1938) [Codification of Laws and Cabinet Regulations]. Rīga: Kodifikācijas nodaļas izdevums.
Monthly Labor Review (1944), Vol. 58, No. 6 (JUNE 1944), pp. 1159–1168.
Šalčius, P. (1935) Ten Years of Co-operation in the Baltic States. Review of International Co-operation, No. 10, 1935, London.
Šalčius, P. (1936), Kooperācijas attīstība Baltijas valstīs. Kopdarbība, No. 18 (26.09.1936).
The Latvian Economist (1923), No. 7/8.