Do Health Self-Evaluations in Urban and Rural Areas in Latvia Differ?




Latvia, health self-assessment, statistical analysis of survey data, urban and rural areas


Health self-evaluations are aspects analysed by researchers world-wide as from self-evaluation depend many aspects of person’s feelings, satisfaction with life and motivation for active life. Researchers have identified that often health self-evaluation is better than reality and the person achieves many goals in their life even with not so good health, and there are many cases when the health self-evaluation is good, but reality is much worse. Comparative data analysis on health self-evaluations in EU countries, EEA countries and EU candidate countries are carried out in EU-SILC. The aim of this article is to investigate – do health self-evaluations differ statistically significant by inhabitants of Latvia in urban areas and in rural areas. Research methods applied: scientific publications analysis, analysis of data obtained in EU-SILC survey using different statistical indicators: indicators of descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, statistical hypotheses test with t-test on equalities of arithmetic means. Results indicate that although the health self-assessment by inhabitants are higher in rural areas in Latvia in comparison with urban health self-assessment by inhabitants, the difference on averages of those evaluations is not statistically different with significance level 0.001.


Ahmed, S.M., Masud Rana, A. K. M., Chowdhury, M., Bhuiya, A. (2002). Measuring perceived health outcomes in non-western culture: Does SF-36 have a place? Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 20 (4), 334–342.

Almhdawi, K. A., Alrabbaie, H., Arabiat, A., Alhammouri, A. T., Hamadneh, M., Obeidat, D., Alazrai, A., Jaber, H., Almousa, K. M. (2022). Physicians’ Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Associated Factors during COVID-19 Pandemic in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 45 (1), 76–85.

Artnik, B., Premik, M. (2001). Health inequality in Slovenia. Medicinski arhiv, 55 (1), 37–39.

Dorélien, A., Xu, H. (2022). Estimating rural–urban disparities in self-rated health in China: Impact of choice of urban definition. Demographic Research, 43, 1429–1460.

Doroszkiewicz, H. (2022). How the Cognitive Status of Older People Affects Their Care Dependency Level and Needs: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (16), 10257.

Glendinning, A. (1998). Family life, health and lifestyles in rural areas: The role of self-esteem. Health Education, 98 (2), 59–68.

Li, Y. (2006). Self-feeling health and its influential factors in residents from Yantai city. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, 10 (34), 31–33.

Ma, Y., Chen, S., Khattak, A. J., Cao, Z., Zubair, M., Han, X., Hu, X. (2022). What Affects Emotional Well-Being during Travel? Identifying the Factors by Maximal Information Coefficient. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (7), 4326.

Ma, Y.-Q., Teng, H.-Y., Sun, N. (2016). Medical-care-seeking Behaviour of Illness-caused Poverty Patients in Rural Areas and the Influencing Factors. Chinese General Practice, 19 (1), 100–105.

Marcinowicz, L., Taranta, E., Jamiolkowski, J., Kaminski, K., Jerzy Terlikowski, S. (2022). Expectations of family nurses among residents of a midsize eastern European city: A population-based cohort study in Poland. Health and Social Care in the Community, 30 (2), e420–e427.

Martins-Silva, T., Hirschmann, R., Bortolotto, C. C., Fernandes, M. P., Ruivo, A. C., Tovo-Rodrigues, L. (2020). Health self-perception and morbidities, and their relation with rural work in Southern Brazil. Rural and Remote Health, 20 (1), 5424.

Nowak, M. (2006). Factors determining physical fitness self-evaluation and health self-evaluation in physically active women. New Medicine, 9 (1), 19–25.

Official Statistics Portal of Republic of Latvia (2022). EU-SILC.

Peixoto, E. M., Azevedo Oliveira Knupp, de, V. M., Soares, J. R. T. (..), Mattos Russo, R., de, R., Souza Velasque, L. (2022). Interpersonal Violence and Passing: Results from a Brazilian Trans-specific Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37 (15–16), NP14397-NP14410.

Stelmach, W., Kaczmarczyk-Chałas, K., Bielecki, W., Drygas, W. (2004). The association between income, education, control over life and health in a large urban population of Poland. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 17 (2), 299–310.

Tagseth, M., Sund, E. R., Hallman, G. T. A., Holmen, J., Kvistad, K., Vik, J. T., Krokstad, S. (2019). May telephone surveys provide reliable public health surveillance data for municipalities? Mode effects differ between categories of questions. The HUNT Study, Norway. Norsk Epidemiologi, 28 (1–2), 105–116.

Xu, R., Zhou, X., Cao, S., Huang, B., Wu, C., Zhou, X., Lu, Y. (2019). Health status of the elderly and its influence on their activities of daily living in Shangrao, Jiangxi province. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (10), 1771.

Zhou, X., Cui, Y., Zhang, S. (2020). Internet use and rural residents’ income growth. China Agricultural Economic Review, 12 (2), 315–327.




How to Cite

Sloka, B., & Angena, A. (2022). Do Health Self-Evaluations in Urban and Rural Areas in Latvia Differ?. Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia, 30(1, 2), 143–149.