Latvian-Lithuanian Economic Relations 1918–1940




Latvia, Lithuania, economic relations, foreign trade, interwar period


This paper provides an overview of Latvian-Lithuanian economic relations in the interwar period. In the interwar period, economic relations between Latvia and Lithuania were mainly confined to foreign trade, although there were some investments in Latvia from Lithuania, as well as tourism. Latvia’s foreign trade in relation to Lithuania was regulated by a number of trade treaties and agreements entered into in 1930, 1933, 1935, and 1936. Latvia’s main imports from Lithuania in the interwar period were horses, seed flax, cattle, pigs and piglets, and timber and timber products, whilst Latvia’s main exports to Lithuania were coal, machinery (agricultural and industrial), paper, timber and timber products, rubber goods (including galoshes), cement, as well as radios. In general, trade and thus economic relations were of marginal significance to both countries in the interwar period due mainly to similarities in their agriculturally based economic structures.


Andersons, E. (1982). Latvijas vēsture 1920–1940. Ārpolitika I [History of Latvia 1920–1940. Foreign Affairs Vol. I], Stockholm: Daugava.

Broadberry, S., O’Rourke, K. H. (2016). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe, Vol. 2: 1870 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Darbiņš, A., Vītiņš, V. (1947). Latvija: statistisks pārskats [Latvia: A Statistical Overview]. Germany: P. Mantinieka & E. Ķiploka apgāds.

Ekonomists, 1920, No. 3.

Ekonomists, 1931, No. 20.

Hiden, J. (2000). On Banks and Economic Trends in Latvia 1918–1940. Falk, P., Krantz, O. (eds). Transformation and Integration in the Baltic Sea Area. Umeå [Sweden]: Umeå Univesity.

Jēkabsons, Ē., Ščerbinskis, V. (eds) (2003). Latvijas konsulārie pārstāvji ārvalstīs. 1918–1991. Latvijas ārlietu dienesta darbinieki 1918–1991. Biogrāfiskā vārdnīca. Rīga: Zinātne.

Karnups, V. P. (2013). Latvia as an Entrepot Prior to WWI: Effects of Trade and Industrialisation. Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia, 21 (1) (Spring–Summer 2013), 18–30.

Kaslas, B. J. (1976). The Baltic Nations. USA: Euramerica Press.

Klimantas, A., Zirgulis, A. (2019). A New Estimate of Lithuanian GDP for 1937: How does Interwar Lithuania Compare? Cliometrica 14 (2020), 227–281.

Latvijas ārējā tirdzniecība un tranzits. 1922–1939 [Latvian Foreign Trade and Transit]. Rīga: Valsts statistiskā pārvalde.

Latvijas Kareivis, newspaper.

Latvijas PSR statistikas tabulas (1940) [Latvia SSR Statistical Tables]. Riga: Latvijas PSR Tautsaimniecības statistikas pārvalde.

Latvijas statistiskā gada grāmata. 1920 [Latvian Statistical Yearbook] (1921). Rīga: Valsts statistiskā pārvalde.

Latvijas Vēstnesis, newspaper.

Latvijas statistiskā gada grāmata. 1921–1939 [Latvian Statistical Yearbook]. Rīga: Valsts statistiskā pārvalde.

League of Nations, Treaty Series, Vol. CLIX, 1935–1936.

League of Nations, Treaty Series, Vol. CXII, 1931.

LVVA, Latvijas Valsts vēstures arhīvs [Latvian State Historical Archives].

Mēneša Biļetens Nr. 10, oktobris 1939 [Monthly Bulletin, No. 10, October 1939].

Norkus, Z. (2015). Who did Enrich Fastest? A Comparison of the Economic Growth of Baltic Countries in 1913–1938. Politologija, 79 (3), 3–54.

Strods, H. (1992). Latvijas lauksaimniecības vēsture [History of Latvian Agriculture]. Rīga: Zvaigzne.

Strukturbericht über das Ostland. Teil I: Ostland in Zahlen (1942). Rīga: Reichskommissar für das Ostland.

The Latvian Economist (1928). Rīga: Ministry of Finance.

Tuskenis, E. (ed.) (1997). Lithuania in European Politics. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Valdības Vēstnesis, newspaper.

Varslavans, A. (1988). Baltic Alliance and International Politics in the First Part of the 1920s. Hides, J., Loit, A. (eds). The Baltic in International Relations between the Two World Wars. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, University of Stockholm, 43–58.




How to Cite

Karnups, V. P. (2022). Latvian-Lithuanian Economic Relations 1918–1940. Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia, 30(1, 2), 70–82.