Association between Spirodela polyrrhiza and blue green algae in aquatic habitats and in vitro conditions in relation to metabolite concentrations under monoculture and co-culture
Keywords:blue green algae, diatoms, duckweed, fronds, Lemnaceae, nitrogen, Spirodela
Spirodela polyrrhiza samples were collected from various locations within the geographical periphery of Malda district in West Bengal, India. Samples collected from all sites were associated with algal colonies comprised of diatoms and blue green algae. Such association of different algal groups and greater duckweed in their natural habitat occurred in the lower epidermis of the fronds. Among the members of Cyanophyceae, Oscillatoria sancta was found to be abundantly associated with the fronds under in vivo conditions. To mimic the in vivo association, axenic monocultures of both S. polyrrhiza and O. sancta were maintained separately or by co-cultivation. Association with O. sancta under in vitro growth conditions prolonged the stationary growth phase of greater duckweed significantly. A growth-promoting association between the two species was shown by increased concentration of some metabolites of S. polyrrhiza. Correlation between growth of the two species were confirmed.
Appenroth K.J., Sree K.S., Böhm V., Hammann S., Vetter W., Leiterer M., Jahreis G. 2017. Nutritional value of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) as human food. Food Chem. 217: 266–273.
Beppu T., Takimoto A. 1981. Geographical distribution and cytological variation of Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. in Japan. Bot. Mag. 94: 11–20.
Bog M., Baumbach H., Schween U., Hellwig F., Landolt E,. Appenroth K.J. 2010. Genetic structure of the genus Lemna (Lemnaceae) as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism. Planta 232: 609–619.
Cao H.X., Vu G.T., Wang W., Messing J., Schubert I. 2015. Chromatin organisation in duckweed interphase nuclei in relation to the nuclear DNA content. Plant Biol. 17: 120–124.
Coler R.A., Gunner H.B. 1969. The rhizosphere of an aquatic plant (Lemna minor). Can. J. Microbiol. 15: 964–966.
Daubs E.H. 1965. A monograph of Lemnaceae. Biology Monograph No. 34. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Driever S.M., Vannes E.H., Roijackers R.M.M. 2005. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density. Aquat. Bot. 81: 245–251.
Fang Y.Y., Babourina O., Rengel Z., Yang X.E., Pu P.M. 2007. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the floating plant Landoltia punctata. Ann. Bot. 99: 365–370.
Fay P. 1976. Factors influencing dark nitrogen fixation in a blue-green alga. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31: 376–379.
Finkel R., Seeley H.W. 1978. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by epiphytes of freshwater macrophytes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 129–138.
Ghosh S.K. 2005. Illustrated Aquatic and Wetland Plants in Harmony with Mankind. Standard Literature, India.
Goopy J.P., Murray P.J. 2003. A review on the role of duckweed in nutrient reclamation and as a source of animal feed. Asian Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 16: 297–305.
Guiry M.D., Guiry G.M. 2020. Algae Base. World-wide electronic Publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. https://www.algaebase.org.
Hastwell G.T., Daniel A.J., Vivian-Smith G. 2008. Predicting invasiveness in exotic species: do subtropical native and invasive exotic aquatic plants differ in their growth responses to macronutrients. Divers. Distrib. 14: 243–251.
Kaplan A., Zelicha H., Tsaban G., Meir A.Y., Rinott E. 2019. Protein bioavailability of Wolffia globosa duckweed, a novel aquatic plant-a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Nutr. 38: 2576–2582.
Khondker M., Nurul Islam A.K.M., Dur-E-Makhnun A. 1994. Lemna perpusilla: Screening on habitat limnology. Bangladesh J. Bot. 23: 99–106.
Kim K., Kim I. 2000. Structural aspects of the reduced free-floating hydrophyte, Spirodela polyrhiza. Korean J. Microsc. 30: 233–240.
Landolt E. 1986. The Family Lemnaceae, a Monographic Study. Stiftung Rubel, Zurich.
Liu Y., Xu H., Yu C., Zhou G. 2021. Multifaceted roles of duckweed in aquatic phytoremediation and bioproducts synthesis. GCB Bioenergy 13: 70–82.
Mc Lay J. 1974. The distribution of duckweed Lemna perpusilla in a small southern Californian lake: an experimental approach. Ecology 55:262–267.
Rao C.B. 1953. On the distribution of algae in a group of six small ponds. J. Ecol. 41: 62–71.
Schwalbe M., Teller S., Oelmuller R., Appenroth K.J. 1999. Influence of UVB irradiation on nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes in Spirodela polyrhiza. Aquat. Bot. 64: 205–211.
Sembada A.A., Faizal A. 2022. Protein and lipid composition of duckweeds (Landoltia punctata and Wolffia arrhiza) grown in a controlled cultivation system. Asian J. Plant Sci. 21: 637–642.
Tippery N.P., Les D.H., Crawford D.J. 2015. Evaluation of phylogenetic relationships in Lemnaceae using nuclear ribosomal data. Plant Biol. 17: 50–58.
Zuberer D.A. 1982. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with duckweed (Lemnaceae) mats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 344–352.
How to Cite
LicenseCopyright (c) 2023 University of Latvia
This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access. Author(s) of the published papers retain copyright, the papers are made freely available for non-commercial purposes, allowing download, reuse, reprint and distribution of the material as long as the original authors and the source are cited. This license is equivalent to the CC BY-NC-ND.